The War of 1812, although a relatively small conflict, shaped the future of the United States domestically and internationally. For the Chesapeake Bay region, the emotional and economic toll of the war lingered for many years. No other theater of war suffered as many British raids and skirmishes.
The country was deeply divided about whether to go to war. The three years of fighting tested the strength of the fledgling democracy, the power of the immature federal government, and the abilities of the military. It stifled trade and commerce, particularly in the Chesapeake region.
Although the War of 1812 ended with no clear victor, many Americans felt they had won a second war of independence. The nation’s success in holding off the British brought a surge in patriotism and a push to increase spending on national defense. Internationally, the war gave the United States credibility as an independent nation that could defend its interests.
Symbols and stories from the War of 1812, including the story of the Star-Spangled Banner--the flag and the anthem--became part of American popular culture and helped forge a new sense of national identity.